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热镀锌家电板不同表面处理工艺及表面质量要求浅析

返回列表 来源: 发布日期: 2019.08.06

热镀锌家电板不同表面处理工艺及表面质量要求浅析

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热镀锌家电板广泛应用于家用电器领域。对于不同用途的热镀锌板,其表面处理工艺也不同。热镀锌家电主要分为外置件和功能件。其中,外部零件表面一般有涂层,主要包括喷涂和彩色涂层;功能零件表面一般只进行化学处理,最广泛使用的是钝化处理。

表面处理工艺表面处理的主要目的是提高产品在恶劣环境下的使用寿命,获得所需的表面效果或功能。热镀锌家用电器按表面处理方法主要分为化学处理钢板和涂层钢板。化学处理后的钢板在镀锌钢板表面进行铬酸盐或磷酸盐处理,以提高镀锌钢板的耐腐蚀性、涂层粘附性、耐指纹性和润滑性。其中,铬酸盐钝化作为一种单独的表面处理工艺被广泛应用。镀膜钢板是对镀锌钢板表面进行涂装和涂装加工,主要工艺分为喷涂和彩色涂装。
钝化处理。如果镀锌板长时间暴露在空气中,由于氧化,钢板表面会出现白锈,影响外观。因此,表面应采用防锈钝化处理。目前,铬酸盐钝化主要用于钝化处理,包括环保钝化、全铬钝化和指纹钝化。其中,环境钝化是常见的钝化,钝化膜中含有三价铬;所有的无铬钝化膜都是完全无铬的,更环保,耐腐蚀性优于环境钝化膜;指纹钝化是去为解决家用电器装配过程中指纹污染引起的铁锈问题,钝化膜也完全不含铬。符合高标准的环保要求。此外,新日铁还研制出一种耐腐蚀性强的铬酸盐薄膜,能够满足加工性能和外观要求,并在连续生产线上稳定生产。
钝化工艺一般为滚涂。其工作原理是在板上加入钝化液。当提取辊旋转时,钝化液浸入板中并转移到涂层辊表面。然后在镀锌板表面涂上涂层辊。环境钝化一般为直接涂层,无铬钝化和耐指纹钝化一般为反向涂层。前向涂层可以提供较薄的钝化膜,且辊损较低,而反向涂层可以提供较厚的钝化膜,但辊损较大。经过化学钝化处理后,镀锌板需要干燥和冷却。
喷雾。在家用电器的表面处理中,经常采用喷涂工艺。通过喷涂处理,可以获得家电外板所需的颜色和光泽,提高其耐腐蚀性。喷涂工艺生产的家用电器主要有室外空调外壳、立式空调面板、微波炉底壳、冰箱面板及侧板、炊具底板、波轮洗衣机面板、小家电外壳等
典的喷涂工艺是上部预脱脂脱脂清洗表面调整磷化清洗吹干预喷涂检验粉末喷涂固化下部。油漆。彩涂板,又称预涂钢板,通常是指经镀锌板表面处理、烘烤后,用有机薄膜轧制或粘结而成的产品,可进一步加工成成品。
根据不同的涂装工艺和不同的烘烤时间,彩色涂料可分为一道涂装一道烘烤、二道涂装二道烘烤和三道涂装三道烘烤工艺。
彩涂板可以替代大部分的喷涂板,与喷涂板相比,用户在使用彩涂板时可以节省脱脂和喷涂费用,具有环保和使用方便的优点。冰箱、洗衣机、微波炉等家用电器的面板、侧面板、后面板可采用彩涂板生产表面质量要求.
家用电器有非常严格的形状要求,其中一些甚至比汽车板更严格。由于家用电器的外面板一般是经过简单的弯曲成形后直接使用的,所以使用的表面大部分是平的,所以家用电器的外面板形状不好将直接影响产品的形状和平面的反射。例如,许多冰箱的侧面板是U形的,即冰箱的侧面板和冰箱的顶面板连接在一起。板长大于3m,冰箱侧板厚度一般为0.40-0.45mm。钢板又长又薄,形状要求严格。电器生产企业要求每2000mm波高,冰箱面板和冰箱侧面板的钢板不规则度不应超过2mm。
此外,一些功能部件还需要更严格的形状,如用于制作LCD背光模组的防指纹背板,它支持背光模组的重量,提高背光模组的刚度,并提供良好的散热,同时起到辅助照明的作用。第十一条反思。如果显示器后面板变形,会降低背光模组的刚度,特别是光线的反射角会受到很大的影响,而且反射镜也会变形,使反射镜无法将光线完全反射到导板上。
表面缺陷。家用电器的钝化处理一般用作非可视零件,表面质量要求相对较低,允许有轻微的手感缺陷,如锌灰、锌渣、划痕、杂质和视觉色差;喷涂或彩涂家用电器ES通常用于可见的外部面板,这要求更高的表面质量,但由于涂层的厚度不同,因此对表面缺陷的要求也不同。其中,喷涂家电板的涂层厚度为60-80微米,彩色涂层板的涂层厚度为18-28微米。由于涂层较厚,喷涂表面可以部分掩盖缺陷,而彩涂板表面的薄层可以放大表面缺陷,因此彩涂板的表面缺陷要求高于喷涂板。

彩涂板一般用于制造表面质量要求较高的家用电器,如冰箱和洗衣机。不允许存在影响其使用和外观的表面缺陷。以冰箱面板为例,冰箱面板通常是高亮度的表面。无论是彩色叠层冰箱面板还是彩色预涂冰箱面板,对基板表面质量的要求都很高。任何凹凸不平的缺陷,如滚印、凹痕等都会在涂层或彩涂后放大,影响成品的表面质量。例如,某彩绘厂规定彩色预涂冰箱面板的颗粒缺陷如下:允许存在密度小于1粒/cm2、直径小于0.2mm的颗粒缺陷;允许存在直径小于0.5mm的颗粒点。最多5个;直径大于0.8毫米的颗粒点不允许存在。

Household appliances have very stringent shape requirements, and some of them are even more stringent than those of automobile boards. Because the external panel of household appliances is directly used after simple bending forming in general, most of the surface used is flat, so the bad shape of the external panel of household appliances will directly affect the shape of the product and the reflection of the plane. For example, many side panels of refrigerators are U-shaped, that is, the side panels of refrigerators and the top panels of refrigerators are connected together. The length of the plate is more than 3m, and the thickness of the side panels of refrigerators is generally 0.40-0.45mm. The steel plate is long and thin, which requires strict shape. Electrical appliances manufacturers require that the irregularity of the steel plates of the refrigerator panel and the side panel of the refrigerator should not exceed 2 mm for every 2,000 mm wave height.
In addition, some functional parts also require more stringent shape, such as fingerprint-resistant backplane used to make LCD backlight module, which supports the weight of backlight module, improves the rigidity of backlight module, and provides good heat dissipation, while playing the role of auxiliary reflection. If the back panel of the display is deformed, the rigidity of the backlight module will be reduced, especially the reflection angle of light will be greatly affected, and the reflector will also be deformed, which will make the reflector unable to fully reflect the light to the guide plate.
Surface defect. Passivation treatment of household appliances is generally used as non-visual parts, with relatively low surface quality requirements, allowing for slight hand-feeling defects such as zinc ash, zinc slag, scratches, inclusions and visual color difference; spraying or color-coated household appliances are generally used for visible external panels, which require higher surface quality, but due to the fact that The thickness of the coatings is different, so the requirements for surface defects are different. Among them, the coating thickness of sprayed household appliances board is 60-80 micron, and the coating thickness of color coated board is 18-28 micron. Because of the thick coating, the sprayed surface can partly cover up the defects, while the thin coating on the surface of the color coated plate can magnify the surface defects, so the requirements for the surface defects of the color coated plate are higher than that of the sprayed plate.
Color coated sheets are generally used to manufacture household appliances with high surface quality requirements such as refrigerators and washing machines. No surface defects affecting their use and appearance are allowed. Taking the refrigerator panel as an example, the refrigerator panel is usually a high-brightness surface. Whether it is a color laminated refrigerator panel or a color pre-coated refrigerator panel, the requirements for the surface quality of the substrate are very high. Any concave and convex defects such as roll prints and indentations on the substrate will be magnified after coating or color coating, which will affect the surface quality of the finished product. For example, a color painting factory stipulates that the particle defects of color pre-coated refrigerator panel are as follows: the particle defects with density less than 1 grain/cm2 and diameter less than 0.2mm are allowed; the particle points with diameter less than 0.5mm are allowed to exist at most 5; and the particle points with diameter greater than 0.8mm are not allowed to exist.


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